Parasites - Skin & Gill Flukes
There are two main categories of freshwater flukes; Dactylogyrus, gill fluke and Gyrodactylus, skin fluke. They feed on the epidermis of the skin and gills of the host koi fish. The fluke parasite on koi will thrive in poor pond conditions such as low dissolved oxygen, heavy organic matter load and pond overcrowding. Plus, flukes do quite well in cool water temperatures.
Both types of fluke parasites have a slender cylinder shaped body. On the bottom, or foot end, of Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus is a pair of large anchor hooks and a rim of tiny hooks called a haptor.
This haptor acts like a suction to dig in and adhere to the host. These hooks cause considerable damage as the parasite moves around on the fish. To make matters worse, the haptor usually carries and transmits bacteria into the injured tissue whereby encouraging outbreaks of Aeromonas and Psudomonas (ulcers).
Skin & Gill Flukes have various options of treatment.
Pond treatment for parasites and snails: 2-4 g / 1000 liters.
Keep on adding in small doses of 2g/1000 litre to keep the pond water pink for 1-2 hours
Pond treatment for bacteria and ulcers: 2-4 g /1000 liter
Keep on adding in small doses 2g/1000 litre to keep the pond water pink for 8-10 hours
Dip: very effective for parasites, bacteria, ulcerations etc. Use 1 gram per 10 liter water for 7 minutes. Always aerate and ALWAYS remove the fish if it gets restless and jumpy. Control timing precisely and do not treat too many fish at the same time unless you can time the treatment of each fish correctly.
This treatment tough, can push an ailing fish ‘over the edge’. Therefore fish already weakened by disease should first be treated with a 30-50% dose first time. Alternatively simply shorten you dipping to 1-2 minutes if the gills are infected and necrotic.
Important. Always de-clog the gills with a Peroxide (hydrogen peroxide) treatment to the pond. It not only terminate the action of the potassium permanganate, but will clear the water from the brown colour. Will also aid in removing the brown coloured necrotic tissue from the gills.
I want to warn about use with salt. Salt (NaCl) is additive to potassium permanganate. To strip parasites from basically HEALTHY FISH can be tolerated, but sick, weakened fish should never be subjected to such treatment and will surely die. Always test salt level or ask the pond owner about his salt regimen before deciding on the protocol for the potassium permanganate treatment.
For certain phenotypes of the Doitsu koi the uptake of oxygen is poorer for certain physiological reasons. They stress more quickly and die due to oxygen starvation. Use half the recommended dose/time when dipping the first time at least to determine their suitability for the treatment..
> Scrape the Koi first before treatment
> Identify which Parasite is causing the problem before treatment
> Make sure the pond water is salt-free because it can harm Koi when used with most chemicals
> Calculate the Volume of Water accurately
> Turn off the UV Unit when treating your Pond
> Test your Water Parameters before Treatment
> Follow the label’s instructions and do not overdose. Chemicals can cause serious damage to your Koi if amounts are miscalculated